Rubidium's atomic number is 37 with an atomic weight of 85.4678. Rubidium is a silvery white mineral in alkaline earth metals, group IIA metals. Rubidium is the most electropositive of the alkaline elements. It can be a liquid at ambient temperature of 40°C. Like all alkali metals, rubidium forms amalgams with mercury. Rubidium is similarly reactive as other alkali metals in the same group, ie. Lithium, sodium, potassium and cesium.
Is it toxic?
Rubidium is a relatively non-toxic element that has not been shown to have toxicological concern from the nutritional viewpoint. However, this element should never be used without proper supervision.
What can it be used for nutritionally?
The main focus is on depression, however, there have been studies done by Dr. Keith Brewer using rubidium in alkalizing mineral therapy.
Who should not take rubidium?
Do not take for bi-polar condition (manic depression).
How does it work?
"Your nerve cells and other cells use specialized enzymes to transform the essential amino acid phenylalanine and its derivative tyrosine into the neurotransmitters noradrenalin, adrenalin, and dopamine. These three neurotransmitters are part of a group classified as catecolamines, and increasing levels of them in your brain has a wellknown, significant antidepressent effect. But without enough phenylalanine and tyrosine, your body can't make as much of these substances, and you could become depressed." Dr. Wright goes on to say, "Rubidium stimulates the enzymes that use phenylalanine and tyrosine to produce catecholamines. In addition to simulating catecholamine build-up, rubidium also slows their breakdown and keeps them working longer." Wipe out depression in 30 days with help from the missing mineral: rubidium, 02-01-2004 Newsletter, Nutrition and Healing, by Dr. Janathan V. Wright, M.D.
"...rubidium is a member of the same mineral family as lithium, sodium and potassium. Reviewers have pointed out that rubidium and potassium behave in many of the same ways, as do lithium and sodium. Potassium and rubidium are mostly found inside the cells; sodium and lithium are mostly found outside the cells. Potassium given in excess or too rapidly intravenously can be dangerous, even causing deaths; rubidium can do the same. So except in very small doses rubidium should always be taken orally." Wipe out depression in 30 days with help from the missing mineral: rubidium, 02-01-2004 Newsletter, Nutrition and Healing, by Dr. Janathan V. Wright, M.D.
High pH therapy:
"The ready uptake of cesium and rubidium by the cancer cells lead the writer to the High pH therapy. This consists of feeding the patient close to 6g of CsCl per day in conjunction with the administration of ascorbic and retionic acids, Vitamin C and A, which being weak acids, upon absorption by the tumor cells will enhance the negative potential gradient across the membrane and also zinc and selenium salts which, when absorbed on the membrane surface, will act as broad and moderately strong electron donors. Both types of compounds have been shown in mice to drastically enhance the pickup for cesium and rubidium ions." Brewer, A.K. The high pH therapy for cancer tests on mice and humans. PHARMACOL BIOCHEM BEHAV 21: suppl. 1, 1-5. 1984. ---
How is it taken?
Orally, as instructed by a qualified health care professional. It is recommended that you take it with food.
Are their any side effects?
Side effects that have been noted are; gastric discomfort, constipation, diarrhea, agitation, insomnia, and transient decrease in heart and pulse rate. Some instances of skin rashes and frequent urination have been noted in some individuals.
What about absorption and assimilation?
"Whatever the nutritional potential of a food, its contribution is nonexistent if it does not pass the test of absorption. Those nutients that have not been transferred though the intestinal mucosal cell to enter the circulation have, for all nutritional intent and purpose, have never been eaten. The variety of nutrients from the organism's environment that have been made available by absorption must be transported through the circulatory system to the aqueous microenvironment of the cells. There, they serve their ultimate purpose: participation in the metabolic activities in the cells on which the life of the total organism depends."
- Ruth L. Pike and Myrtle L. Brown,
Nutrition: An Integrated Approach
John Wiley & Sons, 1984, page 283
Where can you find it in Food?
Foods high in rubidium include black tea, coffee, fruits, vegetables, fish and poultry.
What is the RDA?
There is no established RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance). The typical daily dietary intake of rubidium is between 1 and 5 milligrams.
The digestive issue:
"Rubidium is absorbed easily from the gut, about 90%. It is found generally throughout the body, with the least in the bones and teeth; it is not known to concentrate in any particular tissue. Excess rubidium is eliminated mainly in the urine."
- Elson M. Haas, M.D.,
Staying Healthy with Nutrition; The complete guide to diet and nutritional medicine.
The important point is that gastric atrophy or conditions such as achlorhydria (lack of stomach acid) or hypochlorhydria (inadequate stomach acid) can impair the body's absorption of important minerals, achlorhydria has been found in children as young as five or six years of age. Hypochlorhydria, however, is more commonly seen after the age of 35. It is estimated that between 15 and 35 percent of adults age 60 have some degree of gastric atrophy, including hypochlorhydria. Finding a source of minerals in ionic form would clearly be of benefit to such individuals.
The Mercury Connection:
"All the studies that directly link mercury to Alzheimer's Disease have been done at the University of Kentucky. Three of these found higher mercury levels in AD brains than in age-matched, neurologically normal brains. The first of these, published by Ehmann et al. in 1986, examined levels of 16 trace elements in cerebral cortex of 14 AD and 28 control brains. The authors reported significant differences in eight of the 16 elements; the largest differences were in mercury and bromine (elevated in AD brains) and rubidium (reduced in AD brains). Two years later Thompson et al. examined levels of 14 trace elements in three areas of the brain that undergo marked change in AD victims -- the hippocampus, amygdala, and nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) (11 AD and 11 control brains). They found the same imbalances in these regions of the brain that they had found in the cerebral cortex in their earlier study (with the exception of rubidium).
The mercury imbalance in nbM was the largest of these differences. In 1990, Wenstrup et al. measured 13 trace elements at the "subcellular level" in material taken from the temporal lobe of ten AD patients and 12 normal controls. They reported significant differences for five elements; elevated mercury and bromine, and diminished selenium, sinc, and rubidium. The authors noted that selenium "is known to play a protective role in biological tissue against mercury toxicity" and that zinc may also play protective role "by forming a zinc-thioneine complex with which the mercury will replace zinc forming a less toxic mercury-thioneine complex. Evidence Implicating Amalgam in Alzheimer's Disease. Excerpts from memo by Kip sullivan- August 1996